Past Year Papers: Comprehension Passages Worksheet for PSLE Prelim 2021 SA2 ACS (Junior)

Prelim Paper 2 Comprehension 2021 SA2 ACS (Junior) Past Year Test Papers: Free Test Papers English Comprehension Extended (includes Vocabulary Lists). Primary School exam papers 2021. SG test papers 2021. Free test papers for Primary 6 Pri 6 P6. Primary School exam papers 2021. More papers can be found here.


Welcome to eduKate Tuition Center’s Past Year Papers: Comprehension Passages Worksheet for PSLE Prelim 2021 SA2 ACS (Junior). This comprehensive practice material has been meticulously designed for students, teachers, and parents to effectively prepare for the upcoming PSLE examinations. With a focus on enhancing comprehension skills, this worksheet features engaging passages and thought-provoking questions tailored specifically to meet the requirements of the PSLE curriculum.

At eduKate Tuition Center, we understand the importance of fostering a strong foundation in reading and comprehension skills. Our expert educators have crafted this worksheet by analyzing past year papers and identifying key areas that students need to master to excel in the PSLE. The passages in this worksheet cover a variety of topics and themes, ensuring that students are exposed to a diverse range of content.

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To provide a holistic learning experience, this worksheet includes the following sections:

  1. The Comprehension for Students with no Answers
  2. The Comprehension for Teachers with suggested answers
  3. Vocabulary Section: This section helps students build their vocabulary by focusing on challenging words and phrases found in the passages. Students will learn the meanings and proper usage of these words, which will ultimately enhance their reading and comprehension skills.
  4. Idiom Section: This section introduces students to common idioms related to the passages, providing them with a deeper understanding of the English language and enabling them to apply these idioms in their writing and everyday conversations.
  5. Analysis of the Passage: This section breaks down each passage in detail, helping students understand the main ideas, themes, and key takeaways. This analysis will enable students to improve their critical thinking and comprehension skills.
  6. Extra Information: This section offers supplementary information and resources related to the passages, allowing students to broaden their knowledge and gain a better understanding of the topics covered.
  7. YouTube Resources: To further support students’ learning, we have curated a selection of YouTube videos that offer additional insights and explanations on the passages and related topics. These videos provide a dynamic and engaging way for students to deepen their understanding and reinforce their learning.

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Teacher’s Copy with Answers

Supplementary for Teachers/Tutors/Parents.

Vocabulary for Prelim Paper 2 Comprehension 2021 SA2 ACS (Junior) Test Papers

Here is a list of potentially difficult vocabulary words for a Primary 6 student extracted from the passage:

  1. Exhausted
  2. Expedition
  3. Summit
  4. Altitudes
  5. Supplementary
  6. Avalanche
  7. Treacherous
  8. Beacon
  9. Exploration
  10. Permits
  11. Novice
  12. Incapacitated
  13. Navigators
  14. Icefalls
  15. Altitude sickness
  16. Enduring

Now, let’s create a table with these words, including their definitions and examples in sentences:

WordDefinitionExample Sentence
ExhaustedVery tired, fatiguedAfter the long hike, Lisa was completely exhausted.
ExpeditionA journey undertaken for a specific purposeThey planned an expedition to climb Mount Everest.
SummitThe highest point of a mountainThe climbers aimed to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
AltitudesHeights above sea level or ground levelAt high altitudes, the air is thinner and harder to breathe.
SupplementaryAdditional; used to complete or enhance somethingLisa relied on supplementary oxygen to help her breathe at high altitudes.
AvalancheA mass of snow, ice, and rocks falling rapidly down a mountainsideThe risk of an avalanche made it too dangerous to continue climbing.
TreacherousDangerous and unpredictableThe path above Camp 3 was steep and treacherous.
BeaconA guiding or warning signal, usually in the form of lightMount Everest is a global beacon of exploration.
ExplorationThe action of exploring an unfamiliar areaThey embarked on a journey of exploration in the mountains.
PermitsOfficial documents granting permission to do somethingA record number of permits were issued for climbing Mount Everest.
NoviceA person who is new to an activity or skillNovice climbers should not attempt to scale Mount Everest without proper training.
IncapacitatedUnable to act or respond due to weakness or disabilityThe injured climber was incapacitated and needed assistance.
NavigatorsPeople who find and follow routes, typically through uncharted areasThe Sherpa guides were expert navigators on the mountain.
IcefallsA cascade of ice formed by the slow movement of a glacierThe climbers had to navigate through dangerous icefalls.
Altitude sicknessA condition caused by the body’s inability to adjust to high altitudesAt high elevations, climbers might develop altitude sickness.
EnduringLong-lasting or able to withstand adversitySherpa guides endure freezing temperatures while assisting climbers.
Vocabulary related to Prelim Paper 2 Comprehension 2021 SA2 ACS (Junior) Test Papers

This vocabulary table should help a Primary 6 student understand the meanings of these potentially difficult words and their usage in the context of the passage.

Idioms related to this passage:

Here’s a table representing the idioms, their meanings, and how they relate to the passage:

IdiomMeaningRelation to the Passage
The tip of the icebergA small, visible part of a larger issue or problemRepresents the numerous challenges faced by climbers on Mount Everest
An uphill battleA challenging task requiring a lot of effortDescribes the difficulty of climbing Mount Everest
Biting off more than you can chewTaking on a task that is too difficult or beyond one’s capabilitiesApplies to climbers like Lisa, who struggled with the ascent of Mount Everest
Thin airHigh-altitude environment with less dense, low oxygen airRefers to the conditions in the “death zone” on Mount Everest
Weathering the stormEnduring a difficult or turbulent situationRepresents climbers facing extreme weather and challenges on Mount Everest
Idioms related to the above Prelim Paper 2 Comprehension 2021 SA2 ACS (Junior) Test Papers

An analysis for students to understand the passage

In this passage, a woman named Lisa is trying to climb Mount Everest, the tallest mountain in the world. She’s part of an expedition led by an experienced guide named Kami. An expedition is a journey with a specific goal, like reaching the summit or top of a mountain.

Lisa is struggling during the climb because she’s inexperienced and very tired. At one point, she takes much longer than expected to reach a camp. Climbing at high altitudes can be hard because there’s less oxygen in the air, which makes it harder to breathe. To help with this, climbers often use supplementary or extra oxygen from bottles.

Kami, the group leader, is responsible for making sure that everyone in the group is safe. He watches his clients carefully and decides if they should continue climbing or if it’s too dangerous. In Lisa’s case, he thinks that the risks are too high, so he orders her to go back down the mountain. Risks in climbing Mount Everest can include avalanches, which are large masses of snow, ice, and rocks that fall rapidly down a mountainside, and treacherous or dangerous and unpredictable paths.

The passage also talks about some issues related to climbing Mount Everest. Many people want to climb the mountain, but overcrowding, bad weather, and too many permits (official documents that allow someone to do something) can make it more dangerous. Kami thinks that one of the biggest problems is the number of inexperienced or novice climbers who don’t understand the risks involved.

Sherpas, who are mostly young men, play a crucial role in expeditions to Mount Everest. They help climbers by carrying their supplies and guiding them through difficult parts of the climb, like icefalls and areas with a high risk of avalanches. Sherpas are also excellent navigators, which means they can find the best routes to take even in unfamiliar areas.

One of the most dangerous parts of climbing Mount Everest is called the “death zone,” which is above 8,000 meters. In this area, climbers are at risk of developing altitude sickness because of the lack of oxygen. To help, they rely on the supplementary oxygen they brought with them. Kami, as an experienced guide, constantly checks the oxygen levels of the climbers in his group and makes decisions about whether they should keep going or turn back to stay safe.

Kami has been a mountain guide since 1992 and has helped many climbers reach the summit of Mount Everest. He believes that breaking records is just a side effect of his main goal, which is to help his clients succeed in their climbs. He treats every climb as if it were his first and always prioritizes the safety of the climbers in his group.

Interesting things to teach your child/student related to this passage.

Climbing Mount Everest is a significant challenge and poses various risks and health problems to climbers. Some of these issues include:

  1. Altitude sickness: As climbers ascend the mountain and the altitude increases, the air becomes thinner, and there is less oxygen available. This can lead to Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE), or High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE). Symptoms of altitude sickness include headaches, nausea, dizziness, shortness of breath, and lack of coordination.
  2. Frostbite and hypothermia: The extreme cold on Mount Everest can lead to frostbite, which occurs when the skin and underlying tissues freeze. In severe cases, frostbite can lead to amputation of affected body parts. Hypothermia occurs when the body loses heat faster than it can produce it, leading to a dangerously low body temperature. This can cause confusion, slurred speech, and loss of consciousness, and can be life-threatening.
  3. Falls and injuries: The treacherous terrain and challenging climbing conditions on Mount Everest can lead to falls and injuries. Climbers can slip on ice or lose their footing on steep, rocky sections. Injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to fractures and head injuries.
  4. Avalanches: Climbers on Mount Everest may face the risk of avalanches, which are sudden and rapid movements of snow, ice, and rocks down the mountainside. Avalanches can be triggered by natural factors like heavy snowfall, strong winds, or melting snow, or by human activity like climbing or using explosives to create a path. Avalanches can result in severe injury or death.
  5. Crevasse falls: Mount Everest has many deep cracks, or crevasses, in the ice that can be hidden by snow. Falling into a crevasse can cause severe injuries and can be difficult to escape from, especially with limited oxygen and freezing temperatures.
  6. Exhaustion and dehydration: Climbing Mount Everest requires a significant amount of physical exertion, and climbers may become exhausted or dehydrated. This can lead to poor decision-making, decreased coordination, and increased susceptibility to other health risks.
  7. Weather-related risks: Mount Everest’s weather can be unpredictable and extreme. Climbers may face sudden storms, heavy snowfall, strong winds, or whiteout conditions, which can make navigation difficult and increase the risk of accidents.
  8. Overcrowding: In recent years, the popularity of climbing Mount Everest has led to overcrowding on the mountain. This can result in long lines at critical points of the climb, forcing climbers to wait in the “death zone” for extended periods, increasing their exposure to health risks and bad weather conditions.

Climbing Mount Everest is a formidable undertaking that demands a high level of physical fitness, mental strength, and proper acclimatization. To minimize the risks and health problems associated with the climb, climbers need to be well-prepared, adequately equipped, and guided by experienced mountaineers.

Information on an expedition to Mount Everest


Sherpas are an ethnic group native to the mountainous regions of Nepal, and they have a long history of living and working in high-altitude environments. In the context of climbing Mount Everest, Sherpas are local people who are experienced mountaineers and often work as guides and porters, assisting climbers in their expeditions. They have extensive knowledge of the terrain, local customs, and weather conditions. Sherpas play a vital role in helping climbers navigate the challenging landscape, carry gear, set up camps, and make the ascent safer and more manageable.

Base Camps:

Base camps are temporary campsites set up at specific points on the climbing route of Mount Everest to support climbers during their ascent and descent. There are two primary base camps: the South Base Camp in Nepal and the North Base Camp in Tibet. These camps act as starting points for climbers, allowing them to acclimatize to the altitude, rest, organize gear, and prepare for the climb. Higher up on the mountain, additional camps are set up at various altitudes to provide rest points, shelter, and supply stations during the ascent.

Dynamics of Climbing Mount Everest:

Climbing Mount Everest is a complex and challenging endeavor that requires careful planning, preparation, and execution. The process involves several stages, including:

  1. Preparations: Climbers need to be physically and mentally fit, have mountaineering experience, and obtain the necessary permits and visas for the expedition.
  2. Acclimatization: To minimize the risk of altitude sickness, climbers spend several weeks acclimatizing to the high altitude by ascending to higher elevations gradually and then descending for rest, allowing their bodies to adapt.
  3. Route selection: There are several established climbing routes on Mount Everest, with the South Col route in Nepal and the North Col route in Tibet being the most popular. Each route has its unique challenges and risks.
  4. Camps and support: Climbers, along with their Sherpa guides and porters, establish and utilize a series of progressively higher camps on the mountain as they ascend. These camps provide shelter, food, and a place to rest and acclimatize.
  5. Summit bid: After proper acclimatization and favorable weather conditions, climbers make their final push towards the summit. This typically involves a challenging climb through the “death zone,” where oxygen levels are extremely low, and risks are heightened.


The most popular climbing season on Mount Everest is the pre-monsoon season, which usually lasts from April to May. During this time, the weather is relatively stable, with fewer snowstorms and lower winds. A shorter post-monsoon season occurs from September to October, but it is less popular due to less stable weather conditions and increased risk of snowfall.


Climbing Mount Everest can be an expensive endeavor. The costs involved include obtaining permits, hiring Sherpa guides and porters, purchasing or renting equipment, arranging for transportation, and obtaining travel insurance. Additional expenses may include accommodations, food, and other logistics. The total cost of an Everest expedition can range from $30,000 to $100,000 or more per person, depending on the guiding company, route, and the level of support and services provided.

In summary, climbing Mount Everest involves careful preparation, planning, and execution. The Sherpa community plays a vital role in providing essential support and guidance for climbers. Base camps offer critical support along the route, and the most favorable climbing conditions occur during specific seasons. Finally, the financial investment in an Everest expedition can be significant, with climbers spending tens of thousands of dollars for the experience.

What is Altitude Sickness?

Altitude sickness, also known as Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS), is a condition that affects people who ascend to high altitudes too quickly. It is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high elevations. When the body doesn’t have enough time to adapt to the change in atmospheric conditions, it can develop altitude sickness. There are three main forms of altitude sickness: mild AMS, High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE), and High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE).

  1. Mild Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS): This is the most common and least severe form of altitude sickness. Symptoms usually appear when people ascend to elevations above 8,000 feet (2,500 meters) without proper acclimatization. Symptoms of mild AMS can include:

Mild AMS can be treated by descending to a lower altitude, staying well-hydrated, and resting. Over-the-counter painkillers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help alleviate headaches. In most cases, mild AMS resolves on its own once the body acclimatizes.

  1. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE): HAPE is a more severe form of altitude sickness that occurs when fluid builds up in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange and causing breathing difficulties. HAPE can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Symptoms of HAPE include:

Immediate descent to a lower altitude is crucial in treating HAPE, along with supplemental oxygen, rest, and medications like nifedipine or sildenafil to help reduce pulmonary artery pressure.

  1. High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE): HACE is the most severe and life-threatening form of altitude sickness. It occurs when fluid accumulates in the brain, causing swelling and increased pressure. Symptoms of HACE include:

Treatment for HACE involves immediate descent to a lower altitude, supplemental oxygen, and medications like dexamethasone to reduce brain swelling. HACE can be fatal if not treated quickly and aggressively.

Prevention of altitude sickness is primarily achieved through proper acclimatization, which involves ascending slowly, allowing the body to adjust to the changing atmospheric conditions. In addition, staying hydrated, avoiding alcohol and smoking, and maintaining a proper diet can help reduce the risk of altitude sickness. Prescription medications like acetazolamide (Diamox) can also be used to help prevent and treat mild AMS in certain situations.

What is frost bite?

Frostbite is a cold-related injury that occurs when skin and the underlying tissues freeze due to exposure to freezing temperatures or cold wind. It typically affects areas of the body with less insulation and poor blood circulation, such as the fingers, toes, nose, ears, cheeks, and chin. Frostbite can be a serious condition and may lead to permanent tissue damage or amputation if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Frostbite is classified into different degrees of severity:

  1. First-degree frostbite (frostnip): The mildest form of frostbite, frostnip affects the top layers of the skin and causes numbness, tingling, and a whitish or pale appearance of the skin. Frostnip usually does not cause permanent damage and can be treated by rewarming the affected area gently.
  2. Second-degree frostbite: This form of frostbite involves deeper layers of the skin, causing the formation of clear or milky-colored blisters. Swelling, redness, and pain may occur during the rewarming process. Although second-degree frostbite can cause some damage to the skin, most people recover without long-term complications.
  3. Third-degree frostbite: This severe form of frostbite affects the full thickness of the skin and underlying tissues, causing the formation of dark, blood-filled blisters. The affected area may turn blue or black as the tissue dies (necrosis). Third-degree frostbite often results in permanent tissue damage and may require amputation of the affected area.
  4. Fourth-degree frostbite: The most severe form of frostbite, fourth-degree frostbite extends through the skin, underlying tissues, and into the muscles, tendons, and bones. It can cause extensive tissue death and often requires amputation.

Prevention of frostbite involves protecting the body from exposure to cold temperatures and wind, wearing appropriate cold-weather clothing, and ensuring adequate insulation and warmth. This includes wearing layered clothing, insulated gloves and boots, and covering exposed skin to prevent heat loss.

Treatment for frostbite focuses on rewarming the affected area and preventing further tissue damage. Rewarming should be done carefully and under controlled conditions to minimize the risk of complications. The following steps should be taken in treating frostbite:

  1. Move to a warm environment: Remove the person from the cold and wind, and protect them from further exposure.
  2. Remove wet or tight clothing and jewelry: Wet clothing can worsen frostbite, and tight clothing or jewelry may restrict blood flow to the affected area.
  3. Gradual rewarming: Soak the frostbitten area in warm water (usually between 100-108°F or 37-42°C) for 15-30 minutes until the area becomes soft and pliable. Do not use direct heat sources like heating pads, radiators, or open flames, as they can cause burns.
  4. Avoid rubbing or massaging the affected area: This can cause further tissue damage and should be avoided.
  5. Elevate the affected area: This helps to reduce swelling and promote blood flow.
  6. Pain management: Over-the-counter pain relievers like ibuprofen or acetaminophen may help relieve pain during the rewarming process.
  7. Medical treatment: Severe frostbite requires professional medical care. Antibiotics, wound care, and sometimes surgery may be necessary to treat complications like infections or tissue death.

Prompt recognition and treatment of frostbite are crucial for minimizing tissue damage and improving the chances of a successful recovery. If you suspect frostbite, seek immediate medical attention.

Who are the Sherpas?

Sherpas are an ethnic group native to the mountainous regions of Nepal, particularly the eastern part of the country, near the Himalayas. They are renowned for their mountaineering skills, physical strength, and ability to thrive at high altitudes. The term “Sherpa” is derived from the Sherpa language words “shyar” (east) and “pa” (people), meaning “people from the east.” The Sherpa people have a rich cultural heritage and deep-rooted traditions, including their Tibetan Buddhist religious beliefs.

In the context of mountain climbing, particularly Mount Everest expeditions, the term “Sherpa” has come to be synonymous with the skilled mountain guides and porters who play a vital role in supporting climbers in their ascents. Their invaluable knowledge of the terrain, weather, and local customs has made them indispensable in the mountaineering world. Some of the key roles and characteristics of Sherpas in mountaineering are:

  1. Physical strength and endurance: Sherpas are known for their remarkable physical capabilities, enabling them to carry heavy loads, endure harsh weather conditions, and withstand the effects of high altitudes better than most people. This is partly due to their genetic adaptation to living at high altitudes, which allows them to have a more efficient oxygen utilization system.
  2. Mountaineering expertise: Many Sherpas begin their training in mountaineering at a young age and gain experience through years of climbing in the Himalayas. They have developed extensive knowledge of the region’s challenging terrain and are skilled in various aspects of mountaineering, such as route-finding, rope fixing, and crevasse navigation.
  3. Support and assistance: Sherpas provide essential support to climbers during expeditions. They help transport equipment, set up camps, cook meals, and provide technical assistance during difficult climbing sections. In many cases, Sherpas also act as climbing partners, assisting climbers in reaching the summit and ensuring their safety throughout the ascent and descent.
  4. Risk management: Sherpas have a keen understanding of the risks associated with high-altitude climbing, including avalanches, extreme weather, and altitude sickness. They use their expertise to make crucial decisions that can impact the safety and success of an expedition. They also play an essential role in search and rescue operations in the mountains.
  5. Cultural ambassadors: Sherpas often act as cultural ambassadors for their communities, sharing their customs, beliefs, and traditions with climbers from around the world. They provide a unique perspective on life in the high-altitude regions of Nepal and contribute to cross-cultural understanding and respect.

In summary, Sherpas are a vital component of mountaineering expeditions in the Himalayas, particularly on Mount Everest. Their physical strength, mountaineering expertise, and risk management skills, combined with their cultural heritage, make them invaluable assets to climbers navigating the world’s highest peaks.

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