Vocabulary List for P5 Singapore Vocabulary Lists

Unlocking Cognitive Development: Essential Vocabulary for Primary School Students

At the primary school level, cognitive development can be introduced to children as the mental processes that allow them to learn, reason, solve problems, and think critically. Here are some key concepts and skills related to cognitive development that can be taught to primary school students:

  1. Memory skills: Encouraging children to use different memory strategies, such as repetition, association, and visualization, can improve their memory skills.
  2. Attention skills: Children can learn to pay attention to relevant details by focusing on important information and filtering out distractions.
  3. Problem-solving: Children can learn to identify problems, brainstorm solutions, and evaluate their effectiveness.
  4. Decision-making: Students can learn to weigh different options, consider the consequences of their choices, and make informed decisions.
  5. Critical thinking: Children can learn to analyze information, evaluate evidence, and consider alternative perspectives.
  6. Metacognition: Students can learn to reflect on their own thinking, monitor their own learning, and adjust their strategies as needed.
  7. Language development: Encouraging children to communicate and express their thoughts and ideas can improve their cognitive and language skills.
  8. Creativity: Providing opportunities for children to explore different forms of creative expression can stimulate their imagination and foster their cognitive development.
  9. Logical reasoning: Children can learn to use deductive and inductive reasoning to draw conclusions and make predictions.
  10. Spatial reasoning: Encouraging children to engage in activities that involve visualizing and manipulating objects in space can improve their spatial reasoning skills.

By teaching children about these key concepts and skills, we can help them develop the cognitive abilities they need to succeed academically and in life.

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Here are ten words that describe cognitive with vocabulary meaning and usage for Pri 6 PSLE Grade 6 students:

  1. Perception – the way in which someone perceives something, based on their own interpretation and understanding of the situation. Example: His perception of the situation was completely different from mine.
  2. Memory – the ability to retain and recall information over time. Example: My grandmother’s memory is excellent; she can remember details from her childhood with clarity.
  3. Learning – the process of acquiring new knowledge, skills, or abilities. Example: Children learn to read through phonics, a cognitive process that involves decoding letter sounds.
  4. Attention – the ability to focus on and process information. Example: He struggled with attention deficit disorder, making it difficult to concentrate in class.
  5. Reasoning – the ability to use logic and critical thinking to solve problems or make decisions. Example: She used her reasoning skills to analyze the situation and come up with a solution.
  6. Perception – the ability to perceive, understand, and interpret sensory information. Example: The artist’s use of color and texture appealed to my visual perception.
  7. Language – the ability to communicate through words and understand spoken and written language. Example: Children learn language through a cognitive process that involves acquiring vocabulary, grammar, and syntax.
  8. Attention span – the length of time a person can concentrate on a task or activity. Example: His short attention span made it difficult for him to sit through long meetings.
  9. Problem-solving – the ability to identify, analyze, and solve problems. Example: Engineers use cognitive skills to design and construct new technology.
  10. Decision-making – the process of making choices based on careful consideration of available options. Example: Managers use cognitive skills to make strategic decisions for their company.

Opportunities are usually disguised as hard work, so most people don’t recognize them.

Audre Lorde

How do we use the word “cognitive”?

Here are ten examples that illustrate cognitive:

  1. Learning how to solve a math problem involves cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and reasoning.
  2. Reading a book requires cognitive abilities such as comprehension, attention, and concentration.
  3. Driving a car requires cognitive skills such as attention, perception, and decision-making.
  4. Solving a puzzle involves cognitive abilities such as problem-solving and spatial awareness.
  5. Playing a musical instrument requires cognitive skills such as attention, memory, and motor coordination.
  6. Planning and organizing a project involves cognitive processes such as problem-solving and decision-making.
  7. Recognizing faces involves cognitive abilities such as memory and perception.
  8. Playing a strategy game such as chess requires cognitive skills such as planning, attention, and decision-making.
  9. Learning a new language involves cognitive abilities such as memory, attention, and problem-solving.
  10. Understanding and interpreting emotions in others requires cognitive processes such as perception and empathy.


Cognitive refers to mental processes related to thinking, perception, and knowledge. Here are some examples of images that may be associated with cognitive:

  1. A person studying a complex math problem
  2. A student reading a book and taking notes
  3. A person playing a strategy game, such as chess
  4. A scientist conducting experiments in a laboratory
  5. A person meditating or practicing mindfulness
  6. An artist creating a painting or sculpture
  7. A musician composing a piece of music
  8. A group of people engaged in a lively debate or discussion
  9. A person solving a crossword or puzzle
  10. A teacher using visual aids and hands-on activities to help students learn.


Some sounds that can be used to describe cognitive processes in books include:

  1. Buzzing – to describe a mind that is constantly active and thinking
  2. Clicking – to describe the moment of insight or realization
  3. Chiming – to describe the feeling of recognition or remembrance
  4. Whirring – to describe a mind that is processing information quickly
  5. Popping – to describe a sudden idea or thought that comes to mind
  6. Humming – to describe a mind that is focused and engaged
  7. Clattering – to describe a mind that is juggling many ideas at once
  8. Echoing – to describe a thought that lingers in the mind
  9. Beeping – to describe the feeling of alertness and focus
  10. Swooshing – to describe a sudden rush of inspiration or creativity.


The term cognitive is more related to mental processes, thoughts, and perceptions rather than emotions or feelings. However, some words that can be associated with cognitive in terms of feelings include clarity, understanding, and enlightenment. Here are some examples of how these feelings can be related to the word cognitive:

  1. After learning about the new math concept, Sarah experienced a sense of clarity in her thinking.
  2. With the help of the teacher’s explanation, the students gained a better understanding of the scientific method.
  3. The book’s insights into human behavior provided readers with a new level of cognitive enlightenment.

In general, cognitive is more related to mental processes, so it may not be directly associated with feelings or emotions.


The term “cognitive” typically refers to mental processes such as thinking, learning, and problem-solving, so it may not be commonly associated with movements. However, movements related to cognitive processes can include things like:

  1. Head-scratching: A gesture often associated with confusion or trying to figure something out.
  2. Eye movements: Looking around or shifting gaze can be a sign of cognitive processing as the brain takes in visual information.
  3. Writing or drawing: These movements can be associated with organizing thoughts or expressing ideas.
  4. Fidgeting: Some people may fidget when deep in thought, as their brain processes information.
  5. Tapping or drumming: Rhythmic movements may help some people concentrate or process information.
  6. Walking or pacing: Movement can help stimulate cognitive processes and promote creative thinking.
  7. Rubbing hands together: This can be a sign of anticipation or excitement as the brain processes information.
  8. Hand gestures: Certain hand gestures, such as pointing or making a “thinking” gesture, can be associated with cognitive processing.
  9. Nodding or shaking head: These movements can be a sign of agreement or disagreement, as the brain processes information.
  10. Facial expressions: Expressions such as furrowed brows or raised eyebrows can be associated with cognitive processing and expressing emotions related to the thought process.

What can the word “cognition” help our children to develop?

Cognition is a term used to describe the mental process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and senses. It is a critical aspect of learning, memory, and decision-making. Primary school children can benefit from learning about cognition as it helps them understand how they learn, perceive, and process information.

One thing we can teach children about cognitive processes is that everyone thinks differently. Each person has their unique way of understanding and interpreting the world around them. It is essential to understand that cognitive processes are complex and that each person perceives and processes information differently. Children can learn that understanding other people’s cognitive processes and perspectives can help them communicate and work with others more effectively.

Another thing we can teach children about cognition is that it is not static. The brain is constantly developing and changing, and cognitive processes improve with practice and experience. Children can learn about the importance of exercise, healthy eating, and sleep in promoting healthy cognitive functioning. They can also learn about the benefits of challenging themselves to learn new things, develop new skills, and explore different areas of interest.

We can also teach children about the different types of cognitive processes, such as attention, memory, language, and problem-solving. They can learn about strategies to improve their cognitive functioning in these areas, such as paying attention, practicing memorization techniques, using mnemonic devices, and breaking down complex problems into smaller, more manageable parts.

Finally, children can learn about the role of emotions and motivation in cognitive functioning. They can learn how positive emotions, such as interest and curiosity, can improve cognitive performance, and how negative emotions, such as anxiety and stress, can impede cognitive functioning. They can also learn about the importance of setting goals, taking ownership of their learning, and being motivated to achieve success.

In conclusion, teaching children about cognitive processes can help them develop an understanding of how they learn and perceive information. By understanding their cognitive processes, children can develop strategies to improve their learning and problem-solving abilities, communicate more effectively with others, and set goals to achieve success. It is a critical aspect of their development that can have lifelong benefits.


Clarisse had always been fascinated by space. As a child, she would gaze up at the stars and imagine what it would be like to travel among them. As she grew older, she became more and more determined to make her dream of becoming an astronaut a reality.

However, there was one major obstacle standing in her way – mathematics. Despite her love for space and science, Clarisse struggled with math. She found it difficult to understand and often became frustrated when she couldn’t solve a problem. Compound that with a lack of resources where she grow up, this became a stumbling block for her, glaringly.

You see, Clarisse was born and raised in a small town in Wyoming, where the options for education were limited. The town had only one high school, and it did not offer advanced courses in mathematics or science, which were essential for pursuing her dream of becoming an astronaut.

This part of Wyoming is characterized by wide-open prairies and grasslands, where herds of bison and antelope roam free. The landscape is dotted with small towns and ranches, where cowboys and cowgirls still work the land and preserve the traditions of the American West.

In the summer, Wyoming is a popular destination for outdoor enthusiasts, offering opportunities for hiking, camping, fishing, and other outdoor activities. In the winter, the state’s mountain resorts attract skiers and snowboarders from around the world, who come to experience the legendary powder and stunning vistas. However, Clarise always thought she would do well if she moved closer to a NASA facility like Houston or Florida and tried her luck there to enter NASA.

However, Clarisse’s parents, who were both blue-collar workers, did not have the financial means to send her to a private school or to provide her with additional tutoring. Naturally, they encouraged Clarisse to work hard in school and to pursue her dreams, but they were not able to give her the actual resources she needed to succeed in being an astronaut. Especially how expensive it is to afford tuition fees for University. She did not take this as a fault, rather, more of an opportunity to navigate past her shortcoming.

So she started thinking, hard! First about high school, then her options for university. She did her homework, sat herself targets and worked at it. Financials, school grades. Acing her Mathematics, her Achilles heel, which shall be conquered.

Along the way, Clarisse faced many challenges. She had to work multiple jobs to pay for her classes, and often found herself struggling to balance her studies with her other responsibilities. But Clarisse refused to give up, knowing that she had the cognitive skills (other than Mathematics) and determination to make her dreams a reality. So she sat about with her goals, step-by-step. Slowly, she started climbing that ladder towards being an astronaut.

Clarisse was determined to make the most of her situation. She spent countless hours studying and practicing math, using every resource available to her. She read books, watched videos, and even sought help from her teachers and tutors outside of school. Clarisse knew that if she wanted to pursue her dream of becoming an astronaut, she needed to excel in mathematics. She worked tirelessly to overcome her limitations and to make the most of the resources available to her.

Finally, Clarisse’s hard work paid off. She was accepted into a summer program at a university in a nearby state, where she was able to take advanced courses in mathematics and science. The program was funded by a grant from a local philanthropist, Mr Dean, who recognized the potential of students like Clarisse and wanted to provide them with opportunities for success. It was the opportunity that gave Clarisse the spark to success.

Clarisse excelled in the program, earning top grades and gaining recognition for her outstanding work.

Now guess what, she did ace her Mathematics in her finals. How? Don’t ask. A stroke of luck that the questions asked were pretty close to those she practiced.

This gained the attention of Mr Dean, the same person that has followed Clarisse’s progress so far after that summer program. So Mr Dean took the chance on Clarisse, and sponsored her university, with a further contract to work for him at the end of her tenure.

Clarisse was overjoyed and grateful for this amazing opportunity. She worked even harder, knowing that she had been given a chance that many others never received. With the help of her benefactor, Clarise excelled in her studies and eventually became one of the top students in her University.

As Clarisse’s education and training progressed, she gained more and more confidence in her abilities. She made it into her university’s professorship in Biology. Clarisse also made sure to network with professionals in the space industry, attending conferences and events where she could meet and learn from experienced astronauts and scientists. She reached out to NASA recruiters and mentors, and worked to build a strong relationship with them over time. She got a good feel of the industry and knew how much she needed to work on to get her into the upper echelons of premier scientists that will be accepted by NASA.

Finally, Clarisse applied for a position at NASA, submitting a detailed application that showcased her academic achievements, work experience, and passion for space exploration. She made sure to highlight her unique cognitive perspective and strengths in Biology, emphasizing her determination and tenacity in pursuing her dream of becoming an astronaut.

After a rigorous selection process, Clarisse was accepted into NASA’s astronaut training program, where she underwent intensive physical and mental training to prepare for spaceflight. She excelled in the program, demonstrating her resilience, intelligence, and courage in the face of challenging situations.

She completed the rigorous astronaut training programs and even went on a zero-gravity flight to simulate the experience of space travel.

Finally, the day arrived when Clarisse was selected for a space mission. She blasted off into space, floating weightlessly among the stars and marveling at the beauty of the universe. She had achieved her dream of becoming an astronaut, thanks to her determination, hard work, and the kindness of a stranger who believed in her.

Clarisse’s journey to becoming an astronaut taught her the importance of perseverance and the power of determination. She knew that without the help of Mr. Dean, she may have never achieved her dream. But she also knew that she had the cognitive skills to succeed, and that with hard work and dedication, anything was possible. Of course, she has a second job waiting when she’s back on earth with Mr Dean, but its all good, he’s the CEO of one of the best engineering company in America.

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