Understanding Faulty Parallelism in the Editing Section of the MOE SEAB GCE O Levels English Syllabus
Mastering Secondary English editing skills is paramount for success in the editing section of the MOE SEAB GCE O levels English examination. One common error type that can occur in this section is faulty parallelism. In this article, we’ll explore what faulty parallelism is, how to identify it, and strategies for correction.
- Definition: Faulty parallelism is a grammatical error that occurs when parts of a sentence that are similar in meaning are not parallel or equivalent in structure.
- Recognizing Faulty Parallelism: Look for conjunctions like ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘but’ and check the structures that they connect. If they don’t match in form, there might be an error of faulty parallelism.
- Importance: Understanding faulty parallelism is essential for scoring well in the Editing Section of the MOE SEAB GCE O Levels English Syllabus.
- Examples: Familiarize yourself with examples of faulty parallelism to better recognize it in texts. For instance, ‘She likes reading, to jog, and baking’ is incorrect because the three verbs ‘likes’, ‘to jog’, and ‘baking’ are not in the same form.
- Correction: Correct faulty parallelism by ensuring all items in a list or comparison have the same grammatical form. The corrected version of the above sentence would be: ‘She likes reading, jogging, and baking.’
- Practicing: Use editing exercises focusing on faulty parallelism to improve your skills in spotting and correcting these errors.
- Feedback: Seek guidance from teachers and peers to identify any mistakes in your understanding and correction of faulty parallelism.
- Examination Strategy: During the exam, pay extra attention to lists and comparisons in the given text as these are common areas where faulty parallelism occurs.
- Consistent Learning: Regularly revise your knowledge on this topic as part of your preparations for the Editing Section of the MOE SEAB GCE O Levels English Syllabus.
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1. Q: What is faulty parallelism?
A: Faulty parallelism, also known as parallel structure error, occurs when the parts of a sentence that should be grammatically similar are not. This often creates confusion and disrupts the flow of the sentence.
2. Q: How does faulty parallelism appear in the editing section of the GCE O levels English paper?
A: An example of faulty parallelism in a sentence could be included in the editing section, and students are expected to identify and correct it.
3. Q: How can my child identify faulty parallelism in a sentence?
A: They should look for a balance in sentence construction. If the sentence has a list or a comparison, all items in the list or comparison should have the same grammatical form.
4. Q: What is an example of a sentence with faulty parallelism?
A: An example could be, “He likes running, to swim, and playing football.” The correct sentence would be, “He likes running, swimming, and playing football.”
5. Q: Is it common to see errors of faulty parallelism in the editing section of the GCE O levels English paper?
A: While the distribution of error types varies, it is possible to encounter faulty parallelism in the editing section.
6. Q: Can a student lose marks for not correcting faulty parallelism in the editing section?
A: Yes, if a student fails to identify and correct faulty parallelism in a sentence, they will not receive the mark for that question.
7. Q: How can my child improve their ability to spot faulty parallelism?
A: Regular practice in editing and correcting sentences with faulty parallelism can be helpful. Reviewing grammar rules related to parallelism may also be beneficial.
8. Q: What resources can help my child practice correcting faulty parallelism?
A: Grammar textbooks, editing exercises, and past-year papers can provide examples of sentences with faulty parallelism for practice.
9. Q: Does the GCE O levels English syllabus specifically mention faulty parallelism?
A: While the syllabus may not explicitly mention faulty parallelism, it is part of the overall focus on English grammar.
10. Q: Are there any strategies to quickly identify faulty parallelism in the editing section?
A: A useful strategy could be to read each sentence aloud or in their head, as errors in parallelism often make a sentence sound awkward or unbalanced.
11. Q: Is it necessary to understand faulty parallelism to do well in the editing section of the GCE O levels English paper?
A: Understanding faulty parallelism can be an advantage in the editing section as it expands the range of grammatical errors a student can correctly identify and rectify.
12. Q: How does faulty parallelism affect the meaning of a sentence?
A: Faulty parallelism can make a sentence confusing or unclear to the reader, and it may sometimes result in a change in the intended meaning of the sentence.
13. Q: What other grammatical errors should my child look out for in the editing section apart from faulty parallelism?
A: Other common grammatical errors include subject-verb agreement, incorrect use of prepositions, and wrong verb tenses.
14. Q: Is there a specific format for correcting faulty parallelism in the GCE O levels English paper?
A: Corrections are to be written in the spaces provided in the paper, and the corrected sentence should maintain the same meaning as the original.
Introduction to Parallelism
Parallelism is a grammatical rule that states elements of sentences must be the same or similar in construction, meaning, or form when they are of the same importance. This technique gives balance to the sentence and improves readability and understanding.
For instance, consider the sentence, “John likes reading, writing, and to play soccer.” While at first glance it may seem correct, it is not parallel. The correct, parallel version would be, “John likes reading, writing, and playing soccer.” Here, all elements after the verb ‘likes’ are in the ‘-ing’ form.
Faulty parallelism occurs when parallel parts of the sentence are not grammatically the same or similar in construction. This error breaks the rhythm of the sentence and can cause confusion for the reader.
Consider the sentence, “She loves cooking, to read, and painting.” This sentence demonstrates faulty parallelism as the activities listed after the verb ‘loves’ are not in the same form. The corrected sentence would be, “She loves cooking, reading, and painting.”
Faulty parallelism, also known as parallel structure error, occurs in sentence construction when parts of a sentence that should be written in the same grammatical or structural form are not. Essentially, these parts of a sentence need to ‘match’ in structure because they are ‘parallel’ in meaning. Ensuring parallel structure can aid sentence clarity and flow, and it’s a critical element of effective writing.
Here are several ways faulty parallelism may appear:
- Lists or series: In a list or series of items, all items should have the same grammatical form.Faulty: He likes reading, to jog, and baking. Corrected: He likes reading, jogging, and baking.In the faulty sentence, the verbs are in three different forms: gerund (‘reading’), infinitive (‘to jog’), and gerund (‘baking’). In the corrected sentence, all verbs are in gerund form, ensuring parallel structure.
- Pairs: When two ideas are paired together using conjunctions such as “and,” “or,” or “but,” both ideas should be in the same grammatical form.Faulty: She is dedicated and works hard. Corrected: She is dedicated and hard-working.In the faulty sentence, ‘is dedicated’ is an adjective phrase while ‘works hard’ is a verb phrase. The corrected sentence uses two adjective phrases for consistency.
- Comparisons: In comparisons, the elements being compared should be in the same grammatical form.Faulty: Her singing is more pleasing than any instrument. Corrected: Her singing is more pleasing than the sound of any instrument.In the faulty sentence, ‘singing’ (a gerund) is compared to ‘instrument’ (a noun). In the corrected sentence, ‘singing’ is compared to ‘the sound of any instrument,’ ensuring both elements in the comparison are phrases that express an action.
Maintaining parallel structure not only adheres to grammatical rules, but it also enhances readability and clarity in written English. As such, spotting and correcting faulty parallelism is a key skill to develop for English proficiency.
Spotting Faulty Parallelism in the Editing Section
Faulty parallelism can occur in several contexts, including lists, comparisons, and pairs of words. When tackling the editing section, keep an eye out for sentences that feel awkward or unbalanced. If a sentence contains a list, make sure all items in the list are in the same grammatical form. For comparisons, ensure that the elements being compared are in the same form.
The concept of faulty parallelism as it pertains to editing in GCE O-level English Examinations.
|Type of Error||Example||Corrected Version|
|Faulty Parallelism in Lists||I like swimming, to run, and hiking.||I like swimming, running, and hiking.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Paired Conjunctions||She is both a talented singer and dances beautifully.||She both sings beautifully and dances beautifully.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Comparisons||His acting is as good, if not better than hers.||His acting is as good as, if not better than, hers.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Correlative Conjunctions||Either you must study hard, or failing is inevitable.||Either you must study hard, or you will inevitably fail.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Coordinating Conjunctions||He is not only an excellent teacher but also he is a great mentor.||He is not only an excellent teacher but also a great mentor.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Linking Verbs||The weather was both hot and humid.||The weather was both hot and humid.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Compound Predicates||She quickly finished her homework and then watching a movie.||She quickly finished her homework and then watched a movie.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Infinitives||He likes to read and playing video games.||He likes to read and play video games.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Gerunds||They enjoy cooking, to read, and playing sports.||They enjoy cooking, reading, and playing sports.|
|Faulty Parallelism in Prepositions||He is known for his intelligence and being diligent.||He is known for his intelligence and diligence.|
This table presents common types of faulty parallelism that could appear in the editing section of GCE O-level English Examinations. Please note that the errors are contextual and depend on the overall structure of the sentence.
Also, it’s essential for students to recognize and understand these errors. This will not only help in the editing section but also in their overall writing skills. By avoiding such mistakes, they can significantly improve the clarity and flow of their writing.
Correcting Faulty Parallelism
Correcting faulty parallelism involves rewriting the sentence so that all parallel elements match in grammatical form. This might involve changing verbs to the same tense, making sure all items in a list are the same part of speech, or ensuring that all elements in a pair or series of words match in form.
For instance, consider the sentence, “The teacher told the students that they need to get out their pencils, that they should have their books open, and to pay attention.” The correction for this sentence would be, “The teacher told the students to get out their pencils, to have their books open, and to pay attention.”
Practice Makes Perfect
Improving your Secondary English editing skills, especially when it comes to complex issues like faulty parallelism, requires practice. The more you expose yourself to various texts and engage in editing exercises, the more adept you will become at spotting and correcting these errors. Consider using resources such as grammar books, online exercises, and English tuition services.
Understanding and correcting faulty parallelism is an integral part of mastering the editing section of the MOE SEAB GCE O Levels English Syllabus. With practice and a keen eye for detail, you can improve your Secondary English editing skills and excel in this section of the exam.
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